2010/06/25

Hasankeyif





From wikipedia.org

Hasankeyf, Batman'a bağlı olan, iki yakasını Dicle Nehrinin ayırdığı tarihi bir ilçedir. 1975 yılı nüfus sayımlarına göre nüfusu 13.823 olan Hasankeyf, verdiği sürekli göçler nedeniyle 2000 yılında nüfusu 7493'e düşmüştür. Eski şehrinin tarihi, 10.000 yıl öncesine kadar gitmektedir. 1981'de doğal koruma alanı ilan edilmiştir.

Kuzeyden güneye kıvrılıp giden Dicle nehri üzerinde yer alması ve o günlerde ticaretin önemli bir kısmının nehir yoluyla yapılması nedeniyle Hasankeyf, ticari ve ekonomik olarak da gelişti.

Hasankeyf'i Artuklular'dan alan (1232) Eyyubiler, henüz bölgeye tam hakim olamadan Moğol istilasi ve harabiyeti ile karşılaştı. Birçok yerleşim yeri gibi burası da altüst oldu.

Eyyubiler, Moğol şokunu atlattıktan sonra 14. yüzyıl başlarından itibaren Hasankeyf'i yeniden imar etmeye başladı. Özellikle bugün Hasankeyf'te bulunan birçok eserde imzası bulunan Eyyubiler'in, Sultan Süleyman zamanında bu imar faaliyeti zirveye ulaştı. Hasankeyf, bu yıllarda tarihinin en parlak dönemlerinden birini yaşadı.

Nihayet Osmanlılar'ın gücüne karşı direnemeyen, Safeviler'in baskıları ve iç hesaplaşmalarla iyice yıpranan Eyyubiler, 1515yılında burayı Osmanlılar'a bıraktı.


It is an ancient city, and has been identified with the Ilanṣura of the Mari Tablets (c. 1800 BC).

The Romans had built the Cephe fortress on the site and the city became the Kiphas fortress and a bishopric under the Byzantine Empire. It was conquered by the Arabs, in ca. 640, renamed Hisn Kayf. In the 12th century, the city was successively captured by theArtukids as their capital. During this period, Hasankeyf's golden age, the Artukids and Ayyubids built the Old Tigris Bridge, the Small Palace and the Great Palace. The infrastructure, location and significance of the city helped increase trade and made Hasankeyf a staging post on the Silk Road. The Ayyubids (descendants of Saladin) captured the city in 1232 and built the mosques that made Hasankeyf an important Islamic center.

The city was captured and sacked by the Mongols in 1260. The city would rise from its ashes though as summer homes for Ak Koyunlu emirs were built. Following the Ottoman ascendancy established by Selim I in the region in the early 16th century, the city became part of the Ottoman Empire in 1515, during Sultan Süleyman I's campaign of Irakeyn (the two Iraqs, e.g. Arabianand Persian) in 1534, at the same time as Diyarbakır, Mosul, Baghdad and Basra.

Hasankeyf is rich in history throughout the ages and aside from the sites below, thousands of caves exist in the cliffs that surround the city. Many of the caves are multi-storied and water-supplied. Churches and mosques were also carved into the cliffs and numerous ancient cemeteries exist throughout the area as well.

The Old Tigris Bridge - Built in 1116 by Artukid Fahrettin Karaaslan, it replaced an older bridge. The bridge over the Tigris River is considered to be the largest from the Medieval Period. Support for the bridge was built with wood in case the bridge had to be removed in order to prevent an attack. Because of this, two piles and some foundation work are all that exist of the bridge today.

The Citadel - This structure sits 100m above the Tigris River, overlooking Hasankeyf. The Citadel has likely been used as a dwelling place for centuries.

Small Palace - This palace was built by the Ayyubids and overlooks Hasankeyf as it sits on a cliff.

Ulu Mosque - Built by the Ayyubids in 1325, on-top of a church's remains.

Great Palace - The palace was built by the Artukids and has an associated rectangular tower that may have been a watchtower.

El Rizk Mosque - The Mosque was built in 1409 by the Ayyubid sultan Süleyman and stands on the bank of the Tigris River. The mosque also has a minaret that has remained intact.

Süleyman Mosque - This mosque was built by Sultan Süleyman and is all but destroyed except for a minaret. Süleyman's grave is missing from the site as well.

Koc Mosque - The mosque is located east of the Süleyman Mosque and was likely built by the Ayyubids.

Kizlar Mosque - Located east of the Koc Mosque, the Kizlar mosque was also likely from the Ayyubid period as well. The section of the structure which is used as a mosque today was a mausoleum in the past, containing grave remnants.

Imam Abdullah Tomb - The tomb lies west of the new bridge in Hasankeyf and it the tomb of Imam Abdullah. Abdullah was the grandson of Cafer-i Tayyar, uncle of the prophet Mohammad. An epitaph on the tomb states that the tomb was restored in the Ayyubid period.

Zeynel Bey Mausoleum - Named after Zeynel Bey, this mausoleum is opposite Hasankeyf on the Tigris River. Bey was the son of Uzun Hassan ruler of the AkkoyunluDynasty which ruled over Hasankeyf in the 15th century.

1 comment:

  1. çiçek
    For sharing thank you very much good very beautiful work

    ReplyDelete